The aim of this article is to draw attention to the work of a conflict analyst whose theory of ‘protracted social conflict’ – developed in a sustained. A Theory of Protracted Social Conflict. Edward E Azar, one of the forefathers of the conflict resolution field was the first to the describe violent events in the. 2 See Edward E. Azar, The Management of Protracted Social Conflict. Theory Theory of Protracted Social Conflict and the Challenge of Transforming Conflict.

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In the Ceasefire agreement was signed, and the government agreed to disarm all paramilitary groups in the north and east. In contrast to the model of interactive conflict resolution ICR that Fisher proposed inwhich includes identity as one of many human needs, the ARIA model “keeps its focus more narrowly attuned to identity issues in particular. The effect of this stage is termed resonance, as each side has articulated their core concerns conflic heard the concerns of the other actors.

At this point, actors begin to see where their identities converge, and where they diverge. Studying protracted conflict leads one to conclude that peace is development in the broadest sense of the term. They run a parallel government in many areas of the north and east of Sri Lanka.

The researcher used azr qualitative research approach, through which he was able to find the different facts, opinions, attitudes, and experiences about Rwanda conflicts from different informants in Rwanda through interviews and focus groups discussions.

Since its independence in there has been a conflict between ;rotracted, which gained control over the Sri Lankan government, and different Tamil separatist movements. Therefore, to be effective, a conflict resolution framework must specifically emphasize the needs and identities of the conflicting parties.

The constitution brought a complex system of power-sharingbut both groups wanted to gain more advantages. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 6— This results in the domination of certain identity groups over others. Views Read Edit View history.

The relevance of Edward Azar’s theory of protracted social conflict in the context of Rwanda

These cleavages are characterized by continuing hostility with sporadic outbreaks of violence; and caused by the frustration of human needs for security, recognition, and distributive justice. Such a need for structural change is likely to result in a violent conflict. Azar argued that the denial of basic human needs to a large portion of the population initiated instances of protracted social violence.


The needs of the various parties are, in turn, the underlying causes of the conflict. Although the Cyprus conflict now lasts for a long time, its resolution does not seem to be close. With government being “endowed with the authority to govern and use force where necessary to regulate society, to protect citizens, and to provide collective goods,” [8] the government plays a leading role in the satisfaction or lack of satisfaction of minority and identity groups.

In s the southern Republic of Cyprus applied for a membership in the European Unionand the Turkish Cypriots on the other side turned to Turkey. Since the start of war there were some attempts to reach a ceasefire. Later voluntary regrouping of population resulted in another 10, Greek Cypriots leaving the northern part, and 40, Turkish Cypriots moving to the north, which created two homogeneous ethnic zones on the island.

The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. To alleviate the “underdevelopments” Azar holds responsible for protracted social violence, and in turn overcome the conflict resulting from underdevelopment, Azar points to the needs of security, development, political access and identity in terms of cultural and religious expression. Among the Sinhalese, the anti-Tamil chauvinism started to spread and the Tamils were more and more disadvantaged and excluded.

Groups that seek to satisfy their identity and security needs through conflict are in effect seeking change in the structure of their society. Their tactics, proscribed as terrorist by many countries, are ruthless, brutal and highly efficient in eliminating their opposition.

Retrieved from ” https: The incidents escalated into a war in Julyafter the island-wide pogrom against Tamils. When a group’s identity is threatened or frustrated, intractable conflict is almost inevitable. Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page.

This stage leads to the tangible resolution of the conflict. This element, which contributes to the initial creation of protracted social conflict, consists of the fact that people involved in protracted social conflicts create their own identity groups.

Therefore, this research work is a potential significant contribution to the building of meaningful and sustainable peace in Rwanda.

Identifying the root causes of the Rwanda conflict might provide a baseline for redressing the evils in the country. Contemporary Conflict Resolution, The dominant group isolates itself from the needs of other groups, leading to an even bigger separation between groups even within an ethnicity. All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from April Articles with permanently dead external links Wikipedia introduction cleanup from September All pages needing cleanup Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify protractec September All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify.


From the research made, it has been found that Rwanda offers ample evidence to be referred to as a protracted social conflict. The resultant disconnection of society and the state can be linked to the colonial legacy, which, “artificially imposed European ideas of territorial statehood onto a multitude of communal groups.

This precondition also involves the reliance that many people have on their social groups; because governments in areas that experience protracted social conflict are often unable, incapable or unwilling to provide basic human necessities spcial the population, individuals turn to their social groups for stability. This in turn emphasizes Azar’s theory that the “deprivation of human needs is the underlying source of protractef social conflict” where conflict is emphasized by the collective grievances of a group of people.

Protracted social conflict

Conflict resolution approaches that focus on resources, or the interests of parties, may be appropriate means of conflict resolution in conflicts where socila only issues are those of resource and interests; however, in protracted social conflicts the main issue protractd identity-based. The pre proposals of different federal or centralist arrangements failed as one or the other side rejected them. Olson, “From Interest to Identities: This creates a “crisis of legitimacy” [9] in the governance of these countries.

The contlict and final stage of the ARIA model addresses the “why” and “who” of the conflict, as well as the “how” of cooperation through the tangible “what” of solutions. By bringing animosities to the forefront, it is hoped that the mutual benefits of ending the conflict can be realized. Therefore, the theory needs to be accorded due recognition. With the military coup in the situation erupted into a major crisis.