El trabajo trascendental de Marc Lalonde y sus colegas canadienses estableció los factores determinantes de la salud. Los esfuerzos posteriores sólo han. MICROBIOLOGÍA Y PARASITOLOGÍA MÉDICA. DETERMINANTES DE LA SALUD – MARC LALONDE. ALUMNA: SHEILA MONTERO LUIS. FACTORES DETERMINANTES DE LA SALUD Físico (Macro ambiente): Agua y alimentos, contaminación del aire, transportes, etc.
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The industrial revolution marked the dawn of a new lalnde of rapid environmental change in all its determinants, induced by the cultural transformation social, economic, technological. Its extraordinary acceleration since about forty years ago has transformed patterns of health and disease in human populations, as well as the capacity of resilience of the salus they occupy, reducing biodiversity, the availability and quality of water, and changing the composition and temperature of the atmosphere.
WHO recommends that the average annual concentration of particles in suspension of less than 2. On a global level, estimated mortality from air pollution outdoor and indoor reaches 92 people perinhabitants. In the countries of Western Europe, the situation is better, largely due to the growing regulation and control of environmental pollutants; in Spain, for example, mortality is 15 per , but some countries in Eastern Europe determinantds Bosnia or Georgia have worse situations than Asian countries.
Lalonde showed the mismatch in the distribution of health budgets allocated to each of the four determinants for health and sickness human biology, lifestyles, environment and healthcare system and proposed a realistic redistribution to prioritise primary assistance.
Environmental health modulates the health of populations and individuals via the interaction of matc three components of the human eco-system: What Lalonde called medium in his report includes the abiotic and biotic mediums, while lifestyles are part of the cultural environment, which changes faster and is more capable of modifying the other deetrminantes environmental components, both voluntarily and involuntarily.
The biodiversity sets with which we co-habit make up the biotic medium, with whose species dterminantes establish relationships which may condition, among other things, our nutritional health and the risk of catching infectious diseases.
DETERMINANTES EN SALUD Y EQUIDAD EN SALUD by Gary Saavedra Vilchez on Prezi
The msrc medium integrates land, water and atmosphere, where different species live, and provides essential elements for life such as water and oxygen, while generating the environmental conditions which are essential for health, like climate and light. The presence of certain harmful species or physical-chemical pollutants increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Finally, the cultural medium acts as a tampon between human health and the biotic and abiotic components of the medium, protecting or salid situations which modulate the biological and emotional health of individuals and populations, poverty being the biggest environmental danger. The differential expression of biological processes provides excellent indicators for environmental health.
At birth, the expression of postnatal biological processes starts, which are modulated by the biological state at birth. Low weight under 2. When mortality is still well under control, perinatal intervention should be directed at achieving an optimum biological state at birth: The current increase in preterm births with low birthweight in most developed countries, where delivery is very medicalised, suggests that something is not working in perinatal health prevention, and that a balance should be struck to optimise universal healthcare for pregnancy and delivery, a balance between the advantages of new technology and a reduction in their negative effects.
Anthropometric and physiological measurements provide soft health indicators, that is, non-intrusive ones, which are easily collected and reproduced, and cost little. The most commonly used indicators are size, shape, body composition and functional capacity. Their expression is clearly linked to cultural factors, class and gender which modulate differential access to nutrition, healthcare and protection against disease and child labour.
There is a lot of excellent information about tendencies for these indicators in the growth stages. Inthe proportion of under 5s with retarded growth small size for their age varies from Among women, indicators are broadened with specific information about reproductive function ages of beginning and end, characteristics of ovary laponde, etc.
Less abundant yet equally important is information about temporary trends in indicators of determinanyes, particularly those which measure functional capacity, such as manual strength Dynamometrics or vital capacity Spirometrics. Despite a significant global reduction over the past decade, figures have hardly changed in poorer countries where it is still the tenth cause of death it has even increased in some African countries in under 5s worldwide.
During that period, In both regions there are countries with half their under 5s affected by retarded growth by size, like Eritrea In Mozambique, yams are the basis of diet, especially in rural la,onde where it is grown.
DETERMINANTES DE LA SALUDMARC LALON
Corn, mostly imported, is more expensive and more widely consumed in cities. Food safety has improved globally, but many parts of the country still suffer the consequences of the prolonged war of, which created difficulties for agricultural production and destroyed transport infrastructure.
Persistent droughts aggravate the situation, especially in the centre and south of the country. Between and the global proportion of starving people in the world halved, with big differences between countries at continuous risk of regression due to armed conflicts, climate change and recurrent natural disasters.
Yucca originated in the Amazon region and is an important crop for food safety for families, as well as a source of income, both in Ecuador, where it is endemic, and in the tropical countries of Africa where it was introduced.
The FAO promoted its cultivation as an effective means of fighting hunger, with excellent results, as in Ghana, where increased production and consumption of yucca between and reduced rates of infant malnutrition faster than in any other country. It is no coincidence that Africa is the continent which produces over half the yucca in the world. The indigenous girls and boys of Ecuador regularly attend school, have a nearby health centre and good vital perspectives for a long life close to the national average of Improved environmental conditions as regards food, repeated infections, child labour are linked to an earlier sexual maturity and an increase in size.
The women in the picture were born between andand did not show a change in the age of sexual maturity. Grandmothers, daughters and granddaughters shared the difficult environmental conditions associated with the subsistence farming they lived in, so that the age of their first period menarche was around However, among women born after a clear tendency was detected for a fall in the age of sexual maturity which drops to 13 years.
The decrease in the age of sexual maturity determines an increase in the ages of menarche which are considered premature before 12 years old. The age of sexual maturity is an indicator of environmental health and an important determinant of sexual and reproductive health for women and their descendants. Towards the end of the 19 th century girls in rural Morocco in the region of the Atlas reached sexual maturity at about 14 years old, while their contemporaries in the city of Marrakech, who had better levels of nutrition and were free of child labour, had their first period at about the age of Although city girls who were studied in Marrakech and Madrid in the mid s show similar average ages, there is a very different proportion of early maturity, before the age of The sharp rise in early sexual maturity age is linked to a greater risk of excess weight, obesity and dyslipidemia.
Public Health Heroes: The Honorable Marc Lalonde
The age of death is an indicator of individual longevity and of environmental quality, while life expectancy at birth is a global population health indicator, which reflects death rate by ages, in such a way that all health programmes have a positive influence on it. High mortality at an early age are deteerminantes because of infectious diseases, and considerably reduces life expectancy at birth.
Controlling these causes of early death in countries with high income levels has increased life expectancy and changed the pattern of disease, with chronic and degenerative diseases which affect older people now predominating. The eradication of polio and measles is at an advanced stage. In large populations such as India and Pakistan —which continue to grow rapidly— vaccination campaigns are costly and extremely complicated.
At the end ofIndia started a project of mass inoculation against polio, which mobilised 2. Poliomyelitis only persists in three countries, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria, where it is at an advanced stage of eradication. In Pakistan, the National Emergency Plan to declare the country free of the disease has already controlled its spread out of the last three regions where it persists: Half these deaths occur in India.
India has started a massive vaccination campaign against measles with the aim of covering all regions, settlements and families door by door, as was done to eradicate polio. However, the difficulties are greater because, unlike immunisation against polio, the measles vaccine must lw injected and requires two home visits in successive years to ensure the required doses, which means mobilising around 2.
For the 8, dongria kondhs who live in small, scattered settlements in the State of Odhisa Orissa there is no specific information about the incidence of determinantess vaccination against measles.
Orissa is not at the top of the ranking for measles morbidity, but local and ethnic data is needed about the real situation, which is generally worse in rural settlements. Under 5s and pregnant women run the biggest risk of catching and dying from malaria. In addition, malaria is also responsible for a third of cases of low birthweight in endemic areas.
Basic measures of daily hygiene such as washing your hands or chlorinating water at the place of consumption kalonde part of lifestyles which characterise cultural environment. Taking such steps can reduce cases of diarrhoea by half, and together with vaccinations, are the main measures for preventing morbidity and mortality from infections.
Gastro-intestinal infections are mainly transmitted via untreated water. Rotavirus is the main infecting agent for diarrhoea, but the cost of a vaccine is unaffordable for poorer countries.
Infant diarrhoea is still the second cause of death for under 5s in Africa and Asia. Male water bearers, like the Mexican in the picture, usually carry water differently from women. In this case the jars or chochocoles hang on straps which are attached to his head.
Squistosomiasis or bilarzhia is a parasitosis caused by a trematode worm which causes high levels of disability and death. It is common in rural areas with little environmental control and socio-economic instabiliAlthough it has been eradicated in many countries, it still affects around million people, mainly in Africa.
Infected people transmit the disease by contaminating freshwater with the parasites eggs from their excreta. The main transmitters are boys and girls who play in pools with no health control and are infested with the snails which transmit the parasite. The aim for is to reduce non-infectious diseases to a third these include cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, chronic respiratory and mental health. The increase of mental illness as a cause of death stands out among women and men in prosperous countries, where life expectancy is high.
In mental health problems were not among the 10 main causes of death, while nowadays they are in fourth place. Women live longer than men, but are frequently affected by diseases of the nervous system. The proportional contribution of biological and cultural determinants to this difference sex and gender has yet to be worked out.
Environmental contamination by fuels which make soot occurs both outside and inside the home, producing small particles in suspension of less than 2. In poorer countries millions of people are subjected to environmental risks at home: In badly ventilated homes the concentration of these particles in smoke can be times more than the acceptable level.
Exposure particularly affects women, who are in charge of family cooking and spend a long time near the fire, but also the young children who are with them. In Pakistan, the death rate attributed to environmental pollution interior and exterior is Health is a positive state of balance between the expression of biological processes in individuals and populations, and environmental conditions physical, biological and cultural in which they take place. On the other hand, disease is the negative situation which stems from the breaking of that balance.
Until the 60s of the 20 th century, the western model of health was eminently biologistic, technological and interventionist. From then on, priority was given to primary healthcare in an ecological context with the aim of ensuring equality in health for all members of our species. In spite of unquestionable advances, the objective was far from attained, such that the third of the SDOs established in by the UN for SDO is to guarantee a healthy life and promote wellbeing for everyone at all ages.
So that this time progress in health equality between genders, populations and countries is as wished, WHO has made an important effort in its yearly publication on health statistics, linking available data on the health aims and goals set in SDO with a selection of health indicators for five key areas: The workers strike in Vizcaya.
Environmental health, abiotic environment and contaminating particles in the atmosphere The industrial revolution marked the dawn of a new era of rapid environmental change in all its determinants, induced by the cultural transformation social, economic, technological.
Symbolic homage by nature to women who died during childbirth. Biological determinants for health: Anthropometric material for gauging the biological state during life: Biological determinants, anthropometrics and soft health indicators Anthropometric and physiological measurements provide soft health indicators, that is, non-intrusive ones, which are easily collected and reproduced, and cost little.
Evaluating growth in Ebolowa. Biological medium, environmental health and growth Between and the global proportion of starving people in the world halved, with big differences between countries at continuous risk of regression due to armed conflicts, climate change and recurrent natural disasters. Biological medium, nutritional health and food safety: Environmental health and growth inequality The indigenous girls and boys of Ecuador regularly attend school, have a nearby health centre and good vital perspectives for a long life close to the national average of Biological medium, environmental health and ovary maturity: Bio-cultural medium, longevity and life expectancy Spain The age of death is an indicator of individual longevity and of environmental quality, while life expectancy at birth is a global population health indicator, which reflects death rate by ages, in such a way that all health programmes have a positive influence on it.