PDF | The life history traits of blow fly Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, ) was studied under semi-controlled laboratory conditions at. J Med Entomol. Nov;33(6) Effects of temperature on Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera:Calliphoridae) development. Byrd JH(1), Butler JF. Neotrop Entomol. Dec;46(6) doi: /s Epub Mar 6. Life History of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, ).
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Insects in the family Calliphoridae are generally referred to as blow flies or bottle flies. Blow flies can be found in almost every terrestrial habitat.
Most species are of considerable economic importance to macellarla humans and livestock. Adult secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius. Photograph by Matt Aubuchon, University of Florida. The secondary screwworm ranges throughout the United States and the American tropics. It also is found in parts of southern Canada during the summer months.
Species Cochliomyia macellaria – Secondary Screwworm –
It is especially common in the southeastern United States coclhiomyia it is present throughout the year. Adults are variable in size with most ranging from 5 to 8 mm in length. The body is metallic greenish-blue and characterized by three dark green longitudinal stripes on the dorsal thorax.
The eyes are large, covering most of the head, and appear orange-red.
Head and thorax of adult secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius. Notice the three dark green longitudinal stripes on the dorsal thorax. Larvae, called maggots, are cream colored and legless. They feed on carrion. A mature maggot can reach lengths up to 17 mm. The puparium is the hardened and shrunken outer skin of the mature maggot.
The pupa develops entirely within this hardened shell, which looks similar to a rat dropping or a cockroach egg case. The fly life cycle includes four life stages: The eggs are approximately 1 mm long and are laid in a loose mass of 50 to eggs. Group oviposition by several females results in masses of thousands of eggs, which may completely cover a decomposing carcass.
Effects of temperature on Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera:Calliphoridae) development.
The eggs hatch in about 24 hours depending on air temperature and the larvae feed on the carrion until they reach maturity. Larvae can reach the mature or post-feeding stage in as little as four days. Upon maturity, they migrate away from the carrion to madellaria for a suitable pupation site. Pupation usually occurs within the first inch of topsoil or under leaf litter, rocks, or fallen limbs.
During this time, the larval skin shrinks and hardens to form the puparium, which is dark brown. This stage may last from seven to ten days depending on temperature. The adults can live up to six weeks. When fly larvae maggots infest the tissues of living animals or humans, the resulting condition is termed myiasis and is of great medical cochlioymia veterinary importance. Mcaellaria livestock industry considers the secondary screwworm an important pest because of the enormous economic losses caused by cases of myiasis and disease transmission.
Fortunately, this species does not feed on actual living tissue as does the primary screwworm.
Cochliomyia macellaria – Wikipedia
Thus they can be controlled through proper animal management and wound care. Although this species has been noted in conjunction with sheep strike, it is not considered of great economic importance within the sheep industry.
The secondary screwworm is considered to be very beneficial as a decomposer.
Recently this species has gained recognition in the field of forensic entomology as a principal species on which to base postmortem interval estimations. This blow fly is a valuable forensic tool because its succession and occurrence on decomposing remains has been well defined.
In the southeastern United States, the adults are attracted to carrion only minutes after death, but a hour colonization delay may occur in other parts of the United States. This is one of the most common species of blow flies found on decomposing remains in the southern United States. This species must have access to decomposing carcasses, carrion or rotten meat in order to complete its life cycle.
Therefore, the proper removal of garbage and carcasses will disrupt the life cycle. The removal of vegetative refuse will reduce the annoyance of resident adult populations and risk of recontamination. Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius Insecta: Description Back to Top Adults are variable in size with most ranging from 5 to 8 mm in length.
Life Cycle Back to Top The fly life cycle includes four life stages: Medical and Economic Importance Back to Top When fly larvae maggots infest the tissues of living animals or humans, the resulting condition is termed myiasis and is of great medical and veterinary importance.
Forensic Importance Back to Top Recently this species has gained recognition in the field of forensic entomology as a principal species on which to base postmortem interval estimations.
Management Back to Top This species must have access to decomposing carcasses, carrion or rotten meat in order to complete its life cycle.
The effects of temperature on flies of forensic importance. Effects of temperature on Cochliomyia macellaria Diptera: Journal of Medical Entomology Forensic insect field identification cards. The flies that cause myiasis in man. Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication Biology of the primary screwworm fly, Cochliomyia americanaand a comparison of its stages with those of C. A manual of forensic entomology. Wells JD, Greenberg B.
Estimating maggot age from weight using inverse prediction. Journal of Forensic Science