ASTM D938 PDF

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The present invention provides a paraffin wax and a process to prepare said paraffin wax. Paraffin wax may be obtained by various processes. US 2, discloses a method for deriving paraffin wax from crude oil. Also, paraffin wax may be obtained using the so called Fischer-Tropsch process.

Fischer-Tropsch derived paraffinic into a distillation column, followed by operating the distillation column to produce wax products, which wax products are withdrawn from the distillation column. It is an object of the invention to solve or minimize at least of one of the above problems. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a paraffin wax which can be advantageously used in. Moreover, an object of the present invention is to provide an efficient method for preparing refined paraffin wax product in a high yield.

It has now surprisingly been found according to the present invention that the paraffin wax is a fully refined wax which may be advantageously used in several wax applications.

An important advantage of the present invention is that the paraffin wax may be advantageously used in wax applications such as candles, hot melt adhesives, crayons, packaging, and PVC extrusion lubricants. In another embodiment of the present invention there is provided a process to prepare Fischer-Tropsch paraffin waxes.

An advantage of said process according to the present invention is that by distilling the Fischer. Tropsch derived feed without a preceding hydrogenation step results in paraffin waxes having high Saybolt colours. The relation between hydrogenation of the Fischer- Tropsch derived feed and the Saybolt colour of 9d38. Tropsch derived waxes is for example described on page in the “Handbook of Commercial Catalysts. Heterogeneous catalysts”, Howard F. Fischer-Tropsch product r938 is more stable with respect to product degradation in subsequent distillation steps.

Degradation may be caused by exposure to aastm temperature and by oxygen ingress in vacuum columns. Hydrogenation generally results in higher quality of the normal paraffinic products, e. The following detailed description does not limit the invention. Instead, the scope of the invention is defined by the appended claims. According to the present invention, a paraffin wax has a congealing point according to ASTM D of at least.

The paraffin wax comprises primarily n-paraffins. The paraffin wax according to the present invention comprises more than 85 wt. Further, the paraffin wax according to the present invention has a Saybolt colour according to ASTM D of at least 25 cm. Preferably, the paraffin wax according to the present invention has a Saybolt colour according to ASTM D of at least 30 cm.

Typically, the Adtm colour scale is used to quantify colour intensity for mildly coloured substances in liquid state. For this objective waxes are molten for measurement.

ASTM D – 04 Standard Test Method for Congealing Point of Petroleum Waxes, Including Petrolatum

The higher the number the better i. The paraffin wax according to the present invention has preferably an oil content according to ASTM D of less than 0. It is preferred that the paraffin wax according to the present invention is a Fischer-Tropsch derived axtm wax.

The Fischer-Tropsch derived paraffin wax is derived from a Fischer-Tropsch process. Fischer-Tropsch product stream is known in the art.

By the term “Fischer-Tropsch derived” is meant a paraffin wax is, or is derived from a Fischer-Tropsch process. The Fischer-Tropsch derived paraffin wax comprises paraffins, primarily n-paraffins. Fischer-Tropsch derived paraffin c938 comprises more than 85 wt.

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In a further aspect, the present invention provides a process to prepare a Fischer-Tropsch derived paraffin wax, the process at least comprising the following steps: In step a of the process according asttm the present invention a Fischer-Tropsch product stream comprising paraffins having from 10 to carbon atoms is provided.

By the part “a Fischer-Tropsch product stream comprising paraffins having from 10 to carbon atoms is meant 10 to carbon atoms per molecule. The Fischer-Tropsch product stream as provided in step a is derived from a Fischer-Tropsch process. By the term “Fischer-Tropsch product” is meant a synthesis product of a Fischer-Tropsch process.

ASTM D938 – 12(2017)

In a Fischer- Tropsch process synthesis ast, is converted to a synthesis product. Synthesis gas or syngas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon asstm that is obtained by conversion of a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock. Suitable feedstock include natural gas, crude oil, heavy oil fractions, coal, biomass and lignite.

A Fischer-Tropsch product derived from a hydrocarbonaceaous feedstock which is normally in the gas phase may also be adtm to a GTL Gas-to- Liquids product. The preparation of a Fischer-Tropsch product has been described in e.

Lighter fractions of the Fischer-Tropsch product, which suitably comprises C3 to C9 fraction are separated from the Fischer-Tropsch product by distillation thereby obtaining a Fischer-Tropsch product stream, which suitably comprises CIO to C fraction. The weight ratio of compounds having at least 60 zstm more carbon atoms and compounds having at asfm 30 carbon atoms in the Fischer-Tropsch product is preferably at least 0.

The weight ratio in the Fischer-Tropsch product may lead to Fischer-Tropsch derived paraffin waxes having a low oil content. In step b of the process according to the present invention the Fischer-Tropsch product stream of step a is separated to obtain atm least a fraction comprising 10 to 17 carbon atoms and a fraction comprising 18 to carbon atoms.

The separation is preferably performed by means of a distillation at atmospheric or slightly below atmospheric pressure conditions. It is preferred atm the. In step c of the process according to the present invention the fraction comprising 18 to carbon atoms of step b is subjected to a hydrogenation step, thereby obtaining a hydrogenated fraction comprising 18 to carbon atoms.

Typical hydrogenation conditions for hydrogenation of the above fractions are described in e. Suitably, the hydrogenated fraction comprising 18 to carbon atoms of step c is separated by vacuum distillation at a pressure between 5 and 20 mbar, preferably between 5 and 15 mbar, and more preferably between 10 and 15 mbar. Also the distillation is. Suitably, the first light wax fraction is obtained as top cut of the vacuum distillation, the second light wax fraction is obtained as a side cut of the vacuum distillation and the third light wax fraction is obtained as heavier side cut of the vacuum distillation.

Preferably at least the third light wax i. Typical hydrofinishing conditions for hydrofinishing of the above fractions are described in e. Preferably, the second heavy wax of step d asstm separated, thereby obtaining at least one distillate wax fraction having a congealing point in the range of from. Further, the heavy second wax of step d is separated, thereby aetm at least one distillate wax fraction having r938 congealing point in the range of from.

In step f of the process according to the present invention, the distillate fraction of step e is hydrofinished thereby obtaining a hydrofinished.

The heavy second wax of step e is preferably separated by short path distillation at a pressure between 0.

By the term distillate is meant a fraction obtained with distillation which is a top cut or side cut adtm not a residual bottom fraction. Short path distillation, also known as molecular distillation is known in the art and therefore not described here in detail.

An example of a form of short path distillation is a Wiped Film Evaporator. Typical short path distillations are for example described in Chapter 9.

Figure 1 schematically shows a process scheme of the process scheme of a preferred embodiment of the process according to the present invention.

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For d38 purpose of this description, a single reference number will be assigned to a line as well as a stream carried in that line.

The process scheme is generally referred to with reference numeral 1. In a Fischer-Tropsch process reactor a Sstm Tropsch product stream is obtained not shown. This product is separated in a distillation column 2 into a fraction 10 comprising 10 to 17 carbon atoms and a fraction 20 comprising 18 to carbon atoms. Fraction 20 is fed to a hydrogenation reactor 3 wherein fraction 20 is converted to a e938 fraction Fractions 40 is fed to a hydrofinishing reactor 5 wherein fractions 40 is converted to.

The fraction 10 asym fed to a hydrogenation reactor 8 wherein fraction 10 is converted to asym hydrogenated fraction 90 comprising 10 to 17 carbon d98. The present invention is described below with reference to the following Examples, which are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention in any way. To this end a Fischer-Tropsch effluent was prepared according to the method described in US The effluent was separated in a fraction A which is in the gas phase at ambient conditions and a fraction B which is in the liquid atm solid phase at ambient conditions.

All distillations described below were carried out in a continuous mode. Fraction B was subjected to a distillation at atmospheric pressure yielding a top stream comprising a fraction containing molecules with 9 or less carbon atoms, a side cut C containing molecules with 10 to 17 carbons atoms and a bottom stream D containing molecules with 18 to carbon atoms.

The hydrogenated product was separated in a fraction E which is in the gas phase at ambient conditions and a fraction F which is in the liquid phase at ambient conditions. The hydrogenated product was separated in a fraction Aetm which is in the gas phase at ambient conditions and a fraction H which is in the solid phase at ambient conditions.

Fraction H consists of hydrogenated normal paraffins in the C18 to C range. Fraction H is subjected to a vacuum distillation. The distillation was run at 0. The product was separated in a zstm L which is in the gas phase at ambient conditions and a fraction M which is in the solid phase ashm ambient conditions.

Fraction M is the desired heavy Fischer-Tropsch based distillate hard wax. Properties of fraction M can be found in Table 1. The Saybolt colour scale is used to quantify colour intensity for mildly coloured substances in liquid state. Furthermore, the paraffin wax has a low oil content and a high Saybolt colour.

These observations indicate that the obtained refined Fischer-Tropsch paraffin wax can be advantageously used in applications such as candles, aatm melt adhesives, crayons, packaging, and PVC extrusion lubricants. Country of d9388 document: Kind code of ref document: It is a further object of the present invention to provide a paraffin wax which can be advantageously used in applications such as candles, hot melt adhesives, crayons, packaging, and PVC extrusion lubricants.

An advantage of said process according to the present invention is that by distilling the Fischer- Tropsch derived feed without a preceding hydrogenation step results in paraffin waxes having high Saybolt asttm.

The relation between hydrogenation of the Fischer- Tropsch derived feed and the Saybolt colour of Fischer- Tropsch derived waxes is for example described on page in the “Handbook of Commercial Catalysts, Heterogeneous catalysts”, Howard F. A further advantage is that the hydrogenated Fischer-Tropsch product stream is more stable with respect to product degradation in subsequent distillation steps. Preferably, the Fischer-Tropsch derived paraffin wax comprises more than 85 wt. A paraffin wax asstm to any one of claims 1 to 3, having a Saybolt colour according to ASTM D of at least 30 cm.