API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Recommended Practice for the Design of Offshore Facilities Against Fire and Blast Loading, First Edition. American Petroleum Institute (API) First Edition, April 76p. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of.
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The most prominent leak scenarios for the study were considered as a part of the simplified approach in lieu of considering exhaustive scenario combinations based on different leak sizes, weather parameters, leak directions, etc.
Care is required in converting back to the actual structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the beam and at equipment support points Non-linear finite element analysis The most complex and extensive structural modelling process adopted is the finite element method which can potentially capture all of the non-linear material and geometric behaviour together with the dynamics.
This is of relevance to the offshore sector in relationship to FPSO’s where potentially larger gas cloud sizes could form due to space constraints. Fire and Explosion A;i Part 1: Impact of this policy This policy should have no impact for new installations as designs should incorporate the required regulatory and technical principles.
The failure history of large ocean going vessels is a significant cause of concern in the shipping industry. Skip to content Skip to navigation. This publication is designed to serve as a direct field aid in well gp and as a technical source for teaching Successfully dealing with extreme uncertain events has been shown in the past to 2fg dependent on good engineering practice, as well as appropriate QRA, such as providing continuity between elements, ductile details which xpi high stress concentrations at critical points weld details for example so that the structure can take up the energy of the blast by stable deformations and plasticity.
A;i aims to reduce work-related death, injury and ill health. Prior to the Piper Alpha incident, structural design to limit the consequences of a hydrocarbon explosion 2fg mainly confined to constructing blast walls in the well bay area.
A key area which requires detailed consideration are the structural details which would perform adequately under static loading but become brittle and possibly fail under a dynamic loading consideration.
Limiting a potential gas cloud size is an important issue in zpi design phase as well as keeping the design pressures inherently lower generally through design to minimise the effects of an explosion and fire is a key component on an FPSO facility Relevant publications ISO Offshore Structures – General requirements ISO Specific requirements for offshore structures – Part 3: Proceedings of an International Conference Submersible Technology: However for existing installations remedial measures aip be required to demonstrate robustness of the installation and changes to inventory profile may also require some remedials.
Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 2: Structural strengthening of offshore topsides structures as part of explosion risk reduction methods, The Steel Construction Institute, HSE rr Remedial actions Retrofit of barriers usually blast walls to existing installations plays a major part in reducing the risk and achieving ALARP criteria for accidental explosion events.
Robustness of the integrity should be measured against apl resilience of the structure to resist these loads with suitable margins to cater for the uncertainties in the load estimation, the modelling schem chosen, and the material properties of the materials used. The performance standard required for gp elements and systems should be clear to encapsulate not just the blast wall capacity, but the connections to the primary structure and the response of the primary structure, and be subject to scrutiny associated rpp the verification scheme for the installation.
Examples of evidence Some generic advice ap methods that may be used to assess response are: Industrial scale fire, explosion and environmental pollution from the production, refining, and distribution of petroleum remains one of the major concerns impacting human life and environment, incurring business losses and jeopardizing organizational reputation.
Much of this data is currently being harmonised through ISO to a set of appropriate criteria. Proceedings of an international conference Subsea Controls and Data Acquisition ‘ This method is often described as simple because of the simplicity of the idealisation and the fact you can obtain a response time history using a spreadsheet hence conducting parametric studies apu are useful for screening different pressure time histories.
Generally speaking, guidance for the offshore area is still evolving. Publishers Content Coverage Privacy. Duty holders must demonstrate that structures have sufficient robustness to ensure a low probability of catastrophic failure when subjected to accidental explosions. Nature of threat The potential for an accidental release of a hydrocarbon mixture is ever present on hydrocarbon carrying installations and, if ignited, could lead to a serious incident involving loss of life, loss of the asset and environmental damage.
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This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of offshore structures against fire and blast loading. It emphasizes the need to train personnel in fire fighting, to conduct routine drills, and to esta Prior to the Piper Alpha incident inlimited design guidance for offshore structures to limit the consequences of fires and explosions existed. This website uses non-intrusive cookies to improve your user experience.
These have been shown to act as stress raisers and potential failure sources, even at low pressures. Also the option of minimising 2b areas by splitting up the processing into smaller units and introducing sufficient gaps between the units is unlikely due to space constraints and economics.
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Although an incident of the same magnitude as Piper Alpha has been avoided, there have been fires and explosions which could potentially have led to more catastrophic events.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a practical approach to the cost estimation of fire protection systems during bidding stage using Simplified Risk Assessment SRA methodologies. However what is certainly not simple is the xpi in which the actual structure is converted into a single spring and a mass which in general requires good engineering judgement and a certain degree of experience.
The method relies on a kinematic similarity between the actual and idealised spring mass, which for a beam simply means the velocity and displacement of the spring mass corresponds to a point on the beam which best describes the global behaviour.
A – switch to normal size A – switch to large size A – switch to larger size. Application of such methodology would also provide benefits to the operators in receiving quick and reliable fire protection cost estimate. Log in to your subscription Username. Peer reviewed only Published between: The measures for frequency and severity level are normally 2db on the size of the inventory and complexity of the ro, the level of congestion and confinement and the staffing level of the installation.
Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 0: Resources Technical apj relating to seismic event hazards Jack-up self-elevating installations: Care is required in converting back to the actual structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the apl and at equipment support points.
The methodology adopted was to conduct a risk assessment for a typical bid to arrive at the sound cost estimate for the fire protection systems. Large scale testing in recent years has highlighted that significantly higher overpressures can occur as a result of an ignition of a hydrocarbon in a typical offshore module with realistic levels of congestion and confinement. Risk level Large scale testing in recent years has highlighted that 2vb higher overpressures can occur as a result of apu ignition of a hydrocarbon in a typical offshore module with realistic levels of congestion and confinement.
Background Prior to the Piper Alpha incident, structural design to limit the consequences of a hydrocarbon explosion was mainly confined to constructing blast walls in the well bay area.
Older platforms may also have higher frequency of releases as a result of ageing which will increase the likelihood of leaks due to corrosion and fatigue issues. This recommended practice is intended to assist in development of a management program designed to promote safety and environmental protection during the performance of offshore oil and gas and sulphur operations.
The basic function of a FPS is to receive hydrocarbons from the wellhead, process the hydrocarbons, and store