Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) occurs when antibodies directed against the person’s own red blood cells (RBCs) cause them to burst (lyse), leading to. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an uncommon disorder characterized by hemolysis mediated by autoantibodies directed against. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is characterized by shortened red blood cell survival and a positive Coombs test. The responsible autoantibodies may be either.

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Discussion between the clinician and the blood bank ehmolitik is helpful to solve difficult cases and has the potential to affect therapy. Retrieved 28 December Other physical findings are variable and depend upon the presence and nature of an underlying disease. Cases of AIHA generally are classified according to the characteristic temperature reactivity of the red cell autoantibody [ Table 1 ].

Autoimmune hemolytic anemias with both cold and warm autoantibodies. These autoantibodies react with all human RBCs except those with the Rh-null phenotype. The clinical picture is quite variable.

Cases associated with symptomatic lymphoproliferative disorders are said to represent secondary cold agglutinin disease. Despite advances in transfusion medicine, simple immunohematological test such as direct antiglobulin test DAT still remains the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA. Journal List Transfus Med Hemother v. Incidence of a positive direct coombs test in patients on alpha-methyldopa.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia – Wikipedia

Philadelphia, Churchill Livingstone, Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. Idiopathic primary paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia with monoclonal IgM K anti-P cold autohemolysins. Agglutination anfmia reversible by warming.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia AIHA occurs when antibodies directed against the person’s own red blood cells RBCs cause them to burst lyseleading to an insufficient number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the circulation.


J Med Case Reports. Serological evaluation of PCH PCH is caused by a biphasic IgG autoantibody Donath-Landsteiner antibody that fixes complement at low temperature but ultimately dissociates at a higher temperature. Atopic eczema Allergic urticaria Allergic rhinitis Hay fever Allergic asthma Anaphylaxis Food allergy common allergies include: This disorder is characterized by monoclonal IgM cold agglutinins and is considered a special form autoimhn monoclonal gammopathy or low-grade lymphoproliferative malignancy.

Usually within several days of discontinuing the drug, this type of AIHA gets resolved, occasionally months may be required for complete resolution. Anti-Wr b and other autoantibodies responsible for positive direct antiglobulin test in individuals.

All patients presented with symptoms of anemia; however, in secondary AIHA the symptoms of underlying disorders were predominant.

Cold-type AIHA usually reacts with antisera to complement and occasionally to the above antibodies. RBC autoagglutination may be seen in the blood film and in chilled anticoagulated blood from patients with cold-antibody AIHA fig. Utility of adsorption techniques in serological evaluation of warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

Secondary mixed AIHA e. The presentation of clinical symptoms is typically insidious over several months but some patients show acute severe symptoms.

Data on demographic characteristics and anemoa response of AIHA patients has not available in Indonesia. Monospecific antisera to IgM or IgA may be used in selected cases [ 1 ]. Allergic contact dermatitis Mantoux test. Cold agglutinin disease with Raynaud’s phenomenon. Comparison with flow cytometry.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: From lab to bedside

The responsible autoantibodies may be either warm reactive or cold reactive. InLederer and Brill described cases of acute hemolysis with rapid onset of anemia and rapid recovery after transfusion therapy. Chills and fever typically follow.

Transfusing AIHA patient is a challenge to the immunohematologist as it is encountered with difficulties in ABO grouping and cross matching requiring specialized serological tests such as alloadsorption or autoadsorption.


The cold autoantibody usually exhibits specificity against I antigen, but reactivity against i has also been reported.

Antibodies that react with intrinsic red cell antigens are serologically indistinguishable from autoantibodies, whereas antibodies that react against red cell-bound drug require the drug for hemolysis. Although MeSH uses the term “autoimmune hemolytic anemia”, [5] some sources prefer the term “immunohemolytic anemia” so drug reactions can be included in this category.

The most frequent autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children?

anemua Incidence, long-term serologic findings, and clinical significance. Please review our privacy policy. Infobox medical condition new Articles with incomplete citations from March All articles with incomplete citations. Other therapeutic options such as danazol, CsA, MMF and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have been reported to possess additional benefit in patients with warm AIHA, but their clinical benefits should be further validated in the future clinical trials.

The serologic work-up is made complicated by the panagglutinating warm autoantibodies that often mask the existing alloantibodies thus rendering cross-match incompatible. A careful history of drug exposure should be elicited from all patients with hemolytic anemia or a positive DAT. Autoimmune haemolysis associated with Donath-Landsteiner antibodies.

Other evidence heemolitik hemolysis such as elevated indirect bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase, decreased serum haptoglobin, and the presence of spherocytes on the blood film along with a high index of suspicion will lead to the correct diagnosis. To determine the autoantibody or autoantibodies present in a patient, auroimun Coombs testalso known as the antiglobulin test, is performed.