Standardized the Allgemeine Depressions-Skala (ADS; German version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; M. Hautzinger and M. Allgemeine Depressionsskala Ads Pdf To Jpg. Allgemeine Depressionsskala ( ADS). ADS Allgemeine Depressionsskala al. Free fulltext PDF. (II) Der folgende Test (‘ADS-L = Allgemeine Depressionsskala’) ersetzt keine Arzt/ Psychotherapeutendiagnose! Er dient wie der TSD zur.

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The construct of entrapment is used in evolutionary theory to explain the etiology of depression. The perception of entrapment can emerge when defeated individuals want to escape but are incapable.

Studies have shown relationships of entrapment to depression, and suicidal tendencies. Good reliability and validity of the ES-D was demonstrated. Aklgemeine, whereas entrapment originally has been regarded as a two-dimensional construct, our analyses supported a single-factor model. Entrapment explained variance in depressive symptoms beyond that explained by stress and hopelessness supporting the relevance of the construct for depression research.

These findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical implications as well as to the future depressionskala of the entrapment scale in clinical research and practice. Assuming a certain degree of adaptivity of behavior and emotion, evolutionary theorists have suggested various functions of moodiness and depression. Whereas adaptive mechanisms may become functionally maladaptive [ 12 ], there have been many attempts to explain potentially depreswionsskala functions of depression.

For example, Price [ 3 ] suggested that depression evolved from the strategic importance of having a de-escalating or losing strategy. Social rank theory [ 45 ] built on this and suggests that some aspects of depression, depressiosskala as mood and drive variations, may have evolved as mechanisms for regulating behavior in contexts of conflicts and competition for resources and mates. Hence, subordinates are sensitive to down rank threats and are less confident than dominants, while those who are defeated will seek to avoid those who defeated them.

Depression may also serve the function to help individuals disengage from unattainable goals and deal with losses [ 6 ]. Social rank theory e. Usually, either of those defensive behaviors will work. So, flight and escape remove the individual from the conditions in which stress is arising e. These defensive behaviors typically work for nonhuman animals.

However, for humans, such basic fight and flight strategies may be less effective facing the relatively novel problems of living in modern societies, perhaps explaining the prevalence of disorders such as depression deperssionsskala 8 ]. Dixon suggested that in depression, defensive behaviors can be highly aroused but also blocked and arrested and in this situation depression ensues.

For example, in lizards, being defeated but able to escape has proven to be less problematic than being defeated and depressionsskwla trapped.

Those who are in caged conditions, a,lgemeine escape is impossible, are at afs of depression and even death [ 9 ]. In addition they may also have strong feelings of anger or resentment that they find difficult to express or become frightening to them.

Allgemmeine [ 4 ] and Gilbert and Allan [ 5 ] proposed that a depreswionsskala of situations not just interpersonal conflicts that produce feeling of defeat, or uncontrollable stress, which stimulate strong escape desires but also makes it impossible for an individual to vepressionsskala, lead the individual to a perception of entrapment.

They defined entrapment as a desire to escape from the current situation in combination with the depressionsskaala that all possibilities to overcome a given situation are blocked. Thus, theoretically entrapment follows defeat if the individual is not able to escape. This inability may be due to a dominant subject who does not offer propitiatory gestures following antagonistic competition, or if the individual keeps being attacked. In contrast to individuals who feel helpless cf.

In addition, depressed people are still highly motivated and would like to change their situation or mood state. It was also argued that, unlike helplessness, entrapment takes into account the social forces that lead to depressive symptoms, which is important for group-living species with dominance hierarchies such as human beings [ 14 ]. Empirical findings by Holden and Fekken [ 15 ] support this assumption.


Gilbert [ 4 ] argued that the construct of entrapment may explain the etiology of depression better than learned helplessness, because according to the theory of learned helplessness, helpless individuals have already lost depgessionsskala flight motivation whereas entrapped individuals have not.

According to Gilbert [ 4 ], the perception of entrapment can be triggered, increased, and maintained by external factors but also internal processes such as intrusive, unwanted thoughts and ruminations can play an important role e.

For example, ruminating on the sense of defeat or inferiority may act as an internal signal of down-rank attack that makes an individual feel increasingly inferior and defeated. Such rumination may occur despite the fact that an individual successfully escaped from an entrapping external situation because of feelings of failure, which may cause a feeling of internal entrapment. For example, Sturman and Mongrain [ 18 ] found that internal entrapment increased following an athletic defeat.

For the empirical assessment of entrapment, Gilbert and Allan [ 5 ] developed the self-report Entrapment Scale ES and demonstrated its reliability. Using the ES, several studies have shown that the perception of entrapment is strongly related to low mood, anhedonia, and depression [ 519 — 21 ].

Sturman and Mongrain [ 22 ] found that entrapment was a significant predictor of recurrence of major depression. Further, Allan and Gilbert [ 23 ] found that entrapment relates to increased feelings of anger depresssionsskala to a lower expression of these feelings. In a study by Martin et al. Investigating the temporal connection between depression and entrapment, Goldstein and Willner [ 2526 ] concluded that the relation between depression and entrapment is equivocal and might be bilateral; that is, entrapment may lead to depression and vice versa.

Entrapment was further used as a construct explaining suicidal tendency. In their cry-of pain-modelWilliams and Pollock [ 2728 ] argued that suicidal behavior should be seen as a cry of pain rather than as a cry for help.

Consistent with the concept of arrested flight, they proposed that suicidal behavior is reactive. In their model, the response the cry to a situation is supposed to have the following three components: The authors hypothesized that the copresence of all three cry-of-pain variables primes an individual for suicidal behavior. The suicidal patients, with respect to a recent stressful event, reported significantly higher levels of defeat, lower levels of escape potential, and lower levels of rescue than the controls.

Furthermore, Rasmussen et al. Nevertheless, there has also allgemene some criticism of the concept of entrapment as it is derived from animal literature deepressionsskala 29 ]. To our knowledge so far, there is no data on the retest reliability or the temporal stability of the Entrapment Scale. Because entrapment is seen as a state-like rather than a trait-like construct, its stability is depreseionsskala dependent on the stability of its causes.

Therefore, if the causes of entrapment are stable e. In contrast, for the Beck Hopelessness Scale BHSthere are studies assessing temporal stability that have yielded stable trait-like components of hopelessness [ 30 ]. Young and coworkers [ 30 ] stated that the high stability of hopelessness is a crucial predictor of depressionsskal relapses and suicidal attempts. The PSQ has shown high retest reliability over 13 days in a Spanish sample [ 31 ].

It is to be expected that with longer retest intervals as in the present study 3 monthsthe stability of perceived stress will be substantially lower. We, therefore, expect the stability of entrapment to be higher than that of perceived stress as a state-like construct, but lower than that of hopelessness, which has been shown to be more trait-like [ 32 ].

Allgemeine Depressionsskala

Previous research is equivocal regarding the dimensionality of the entrapment construct. Internal and external entrapment were originally conceived as two separate constructs cf.

The scores of the two subscales were averaged to result in a total entrapment score in many studies. However as Taylor et al. This reasoning is supported by the observation that some of the items of the ES cannot easily be classified either as internal or external entrapment and because the corresponding subscales aes face validity e.

Empirical evidence indicates that entrapment can be reliably assessed using the ES. Furthermore, the perception of entrapment seems to be a frequent experience of depressed persons. The aims of the present study were a to develop a German version of the ES, b to test its factorial structure, c adw demonstrate construct validity of the German version of the ES by replicating previously found associations with other constructs, d to support the distinctness of the entrapment construct for the explanation of depressive symptoms, and e to investigate the stability of the ES.


Thus, the following hypotheses were tested in the present study. This means that entrapment measured with the ES-D positively correlates with depressive symptoms, with perceived general stress level, and with hopelessness. The study included three samples that involved a total of participants. The third sample was a subset of subjects from the OL sample participating in the retest assessment.

Because of the different presentation forms PP versus OL it was not methodically clear whether these forms would show comparable psychometric properties. Therefore Allgdmeine and OL were described separately throughout the paper. Participants were recruited from the social environment of the first two authors and of two research assistants.

These four persons wrote emails for OL samples and letters for PP samples to colleagues and acquaintances and posted links to the online questionnaire in various social internet networks. All participants were volunteers from Germany or German-speaking Switzerland, and they did not receive incentives.

All subjects gave their informed consent for the study. Table 1 gives an overview of the sociodemographic characteristics of the three samples. The PP sample consisted of participants 96 females, 74 males; The OL sample consisted of participants females, males; Participants completed the questionnaires online after receiving an invitation via email.

After a second invitation by email, a total of participants The 16 items of the original ES [ 5 ] were translated into German by the first author with the permission of the author of the original scale. A bilingual person translated the items back into English, which led to comparable items with small deviations from the original version. Each deviation was examined and corrected in order to optimize the German translation [ 34 ]. Items 1 to 10 had originally been generated by Gilbert and Allan [ 5 ] to measure External Entrapmentand items 11 to 16 were designed to assess Internal Entrapment see Table 3.

Participants were asked to indicate the degree to which the items represented their thoughts and feelings during the last week on a 5-point Likert scale not at all, a little bit, moderately, quite a bit, and extremely.

The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale CES-D [ 35 ] is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed for studies involving nonclinical samples to assess the presence and duration of depressive affect, motor inhibition, and negative thought patterns. The ADS-K consists of 15 items e. The ADS-K showed good internal consistency in clinical and nonclinical samples for a depressive sample, in a general sample; The Beck Hopelessness Scale BHS [ 37 ] is a item self-report scale measuring the degree of pessimism about the future e.

Allgemeine Depressionsskala Ads Pdf To Jpg

Beck and Steer [ 38 ] found for the BHS a high internal consistency as well as correlations with clinical ratings and other hopelessness measures. Krampen [ 39 ] translated the BHS into German and presented a short form, for which good depeessionsskala and validity estimates are reported.

The German form of the BHS exists in two parallel forms with 10 allgemeind each. We used parallel form A in this study.

The Perceived Stress Questionnaire PSQ [ 40 ] is a self-report questionnaire that assesses subjectively experienced stress independently of specific and objective triggers [ 40 ] e. In this study, a German revised deprewsionsskala of depressiosnskala PSQ [ 41 ] was used, which consists of 20 items scored on a 4-point Likert-scale format almost neversometimesoftenand mostly. First, differences between samples were investigated by t -tests and -tests. The goals were to compare the two samples that used different answering formats online versus paper-penciland to make sure that the retest sample did not differ from the larger OL sample.